Don’t check your brains at the door: 6 tips for effective community development

Those of you who grew up in church in the 90s might remember this book: Don’t Check Your Brains at the Door.  The basic idea is that Christianity and reason aren’t mutually exclusive.  I think the same idea applies to philanthropy.  With so much poverty in the world, how can we afford not to use our brains when deciding what community and economic development strategies to pursue?  Especially in resource-limited nonprofits, wasting resources on strategies that don’t help – or worse, hurt! – those they’re trying to help is painfully inefficient.  (I hate inefficiency.)

Here are 6 ideas from Toxic Charity that will help development organizations and individuals to be smarter with our resources.  In other words, follow these tips if you want to contribute to strategies that work (as well as possible given the complexities of poverty)!*

1)   Determine the real need. 

Is the need we’re addressing a chronic need or a crisis?  If it’s a crisis, by all means give whatever relief is needed (e.g. food, medical care, shelter).  Once a crisis is averted, however, individuals and communities need help returning to their pre-crisis conditions (i.e. rehabilitation; e.g. job training, alcohol and drug treatment, counseling) versus more relief.  If it’s a chronic need we’re addressing, determine which is appropriate: rehabilitation or development (i.e. improving a community for the long-haul; e.g. education, medical care, government infrastructure, job creation, etc.).

For example, in many communities in the US, “[poor] nutrition is certainly a problem,… but not starvation… And when we respond to a chronic need [poor nutrition] as though it were a crisis [starvation], we can predict toxic results: dependency, deception, disempowerment.”  (TC, Chapter 4)

If there’s hunger but no fear of starvation, a food co-op where members pay into a food-buying collective might be a good option.  These co-ops affirm the dignity of the members and allow the group to buy ten times more food as a collective entity (here’s a great video that explains the model:  If jobs are needed to afford food, food distribution coupled with a job readiness or placement program might address that need more directly.  However, if someone is facing a one-time crisis (e.g. a sudden loss of job, injury, illness), free relief could still be the best option at that time.

2)   Be respectful.

Respect is essential in determining the real need.  Listen to those you’re trying to help – not as an external savior, but as a co-collaborator.  Acknowledge their struggles, affirm their worth, and discover what ideas they have and what they have to offer.  Then join in alongside them!

“Made in the image of God, we are created with intrinsic worth… But those who have been devalued by society are unusually sensitive to the signals they receive from the dominant culture.  Those in service work have the responsibility to listen to what those in need are saying and… also to what is not being said.”  (TC, Chapter 9)

Personal interaction is obviously a good way to develop compassion and understanding, but books can be great as well!  Poor Economics gives an insightful and well-researched perspective on the complex economic environments of the poor, both domestically and internationally – here’s a quick summary.  This article also gives similar insights on a more personal level.

3)   Consider the environment.

“Teaching a man to fish is an individual matter; but gaining control of the lake is a community issue.” (TC, Chapter 7)

What use is it to know how to fish if you only have access to a polluted lake?  Or no lake?  Or if someone else controls access to the lake?

Development can’t be done in isolation.  Just as you can’t create a business strategy in a vacuum, you can’t create a development strategy without taking external factors into consideration.

  • What could affect our work here?
  • Will corrupt officials impede aid delivery or free markets?
  • What crops are the weather/climate/soil suitable for?
  • What’s the market – who would be interested in buying?
  • Are there cultural barriers to entry?
  • Are community members resistant to “outsiders”?
  • Is there racial/cultural/religious strife?
  • What are their current sources of income?
  • Do community members work together or stay isolated?

For more on corruption and poverty, check out Economic Gangsters – interesting read!  For more on the interplay of human interaction/game theory and poverty, check out Games in Economic Development (by one of my professors!).

4)   Assess available resources.

“[Need] does not constitute a call… Focus your efforts in one or two areas that have a compelling interest to you, [and] that maximize your giftedness.  Defining (narrowing) your involvement allows you to concentrate your best energies strategically while establishing… boundaries…  Your marriage and family life will thank you.  And your community will ultimately appreciate the presence of a healthy family and an effective neighbor.” (TC, Chapter 9)

You might have a passion for food, but you wouldn’t start a restaurant if you can’t cook.  Instead, you could review restaurants, interview chefs, or start a food blog of your favorite dishes.  If you still want to start a restaurant, you’ll probably want to find a chef and then get advice from other restaurateurs!  Similarly, you might have a passion for education, but why start a tutoring program if you have no experience in education?  Instead, maybe consider pursuing another approach that will use your gifts while still helping the community.  If you’re still passionate about education, actively recruit experienced staff, volunteers, or board members and allow them to help guide strategy development!

For churches: “A church full of businesspeople might be uniquely equipped to create successful businesses in a developing country.  A church full of educators could turn around an underperforming school in their community, even the entire system.”  (TC, Chapter 5)  A church of engineers could offer tech support for nonprofits and low-income neighborhoods or teach a computer course at a local school.  A church of doctors could do medical missions or host a neighborhood clinic (Doctors for Change, Doctors without Borders, Samaritan’s Purse).  (I know some people want to do something different in their non-work time – more on this in my next post.)

Also see what resources the community has.

  • Who are the leaders?
  • What individual skills or material resources could help others in the neighborhood?
  • What makes residents proud of their community?

“When we focus on what is wrong, we miss what is right.  And our strategies for helping are driven by combating problems rather than strengthening potential.” (TC, Chapter 10)

5)   Make smart investments.

“Successful entrepreneurs… are concerned with return on investment.  They want to see measurable impact and lasting results.” (TC, Chapter 7)

Yes, return on investment can be harder to calculate in philanthropic work, but an organization still needs to determine which programs will have the greatest possibility of achieving intended goals.  Here are some questions to ask when deciding what programs to invest in:

  • Will these programs effect long-term change?
  • Will they foster dependency?
  • Are they good in the short-term but bad in the long-term?
  • Are students just memorizing testing strategies or really learning?
  • Are short-term trips costing or benefiting the organization? **

Just as business investors check in periodically to see how their investments are doing, nonprofit programs need to be evaluated regularly to see if they’re still achieving their intended results.  It’s not enough to invest in a good cause – we must invest wisely.  We can’t get lazy because it’s a good cause – if anything, we must be more rigorous in our evaluations.  Someone’s life could depend on it!

(For individuals deciding which organizations to partner with, taking short-term “insight” trips could be beneficial to see how the organizations work.  If you can’t take a trip, offer to serve on the board or volunteer for a domestic service project.  Just do your research so you can make a smart investment!)

6)   Stay disciplined.

As we’ve seen, effective community development requires research, evaluation, and continual flexibility and adjustment.  The best strategy is often not the easiest strategy!

“Enabling the poor to create their own solutions is obviously a much slower process than fixing problems for them – painfully slow for high-capacity friends with resources who would effect a quick ‘cure’.” (TC, Chapter 8)

Successful community development collaboration is complicated.  Not only do nonprofits need to plan, communicate, implement, and evaluate excellently to succeed (much like for-profit businesses do!), but staff members, community residents, donors, and volunteers all bring different cultures, values, expectations, and agendas to a (hopefully) shared vision.  Coordinating all of this requires discipline, dedication, teamwork, and wisdom.

Given all of this complexity, please please don’t check your brains at the door!  Share more ideas in the Comments section below!


* If an organization you’re interested in doesn’t seem to be following these tips, don’t write them off right away.  Have a discussion (or two or three…) with the leaders about their mission and strategies.  Maybe there’s something going on behind the scenes you’re not aware of.  Or maybe you can help point them in the right direction.  Toxic Charity and When Helping Hurts would be great reads!

** The president of a struggling seminary in Cuba allowed volunteers from American churches to come each year to do manual labor that they weren’t equipped for.  Despite the necessary labor-intensive pre-trip coordination (and post-trip fixing of shoddy workmanship!), she continued to allow churches to “help” because of her fear that they would cut off their ministry support otherwise.  “Oh, what she could have done with the nearly $30,000 this group was spending on this trip!  Still, the church’s forthcoming, smaller donation for the true needs of the seminary was essential to their continuing work…

Anyone with a business background (or even street smarts) would agree that the amount spent on service trips is extravagant when compared to the monetary value of the actual work done.  But when people with business backgrounds enter service work, they repeatedly fail to bring with them their common sense and business acumen, defaulting to traditional charity models.  They would not put up with this kind of return on investment in their professional lives.” (TC, Chapter 2)


Charity can hurt (and man, I’m a mooch!)

 “Giving to those in need what they could be gaining from their own initiative may well be the kindest way to destroy people.”

– Robert Lupton, Toxic Charity

I’ve experienced some of this in my own life…

1)   Don’t get me wrong – I have an amazing life: wonderful friends and family, a beautiful house, access to food, plenty of clothes..  BUT I also have no incentive to work: I have ALL of this without needing to lift a finger.

2)   I’m also embarrassed that I don’t work.  When asked what I do, I often avoid eye contact and mumble, “uh.. nothing”.  I’m grateful that people care and want to help, but it’s embarrassing that I can’t land any of the jobs I’m applying for.

3)   I (sometimes) feel guiltily indebted to Andy: basically the entire time we’ve been married, he’s worked a full-time job while I’ve done just random things here and there.  I know I need to step up and contribute… don’t want him to regret his decisions to support (or marry) me! 😉

So how does this relate to charity, you ask?


1)   Destroys initiative.

Chapter 2: Juan Ulloa, Opportunity International’s Nicaragua Director, laments that American church partners “’destroy the initiative of [his] people’” and turn them into beggars: why work when donors continually provide free clothing, books, and manual labor?

2)   Emasculates. 

Chapter 3: After moving into an urban neighborhood, Lupton saw firsthand what happens when well-meaning donors bring over Christmas presents: “a father is emasculated in his own house in front of his wife and children for not being able to provide presents for his family… [and] children get the message that the ‘good stuff’ comes from rich people out there and it is free.”

3)   Hurts the giver.

Chapter 4: Lupton says it well: “No one wants to support irresponsibility.  Or create dependency.  Or feel used.  Unless the victim of misfortune exerts honest effort to regain self-reliance, the relationship between helper and helpee will tend to deteriorate.  At some point accountability is required.”


I know my situation is a little different (and poverty is so much more complicated than these 3 simple points), but charity – even when done with the best of intentions and out of love – can destroy incentive, emasculate, and hurt the helper/helpee relationship.  Hopefully these examples will help spark ideas for more effective development strategies (e.g. rethinking aid incentive structures, training and empowering, ensuring recipient accountability).

Please leave any other ideas in the Comments section below!



A lot of these ideas are from Toxic Charity by Robert Lupton and are very similar to those in When Helping Hurts (a book I’ve posted on before: here and here).  More to come in future posts!

Afghan Women and the Post-2014 Economy by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon

I feel like fighting poverty can be overwhelming and seem never-ending.. so it’s nice to read some optimistic articles every once in a while! (from the Council on Foreign Relations)


Afghan Women and the Post-2014 Economy

Posted on January 17, 2014 4:06 pm
by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon


Colonel Jamila Bayaaz, the first female district police chief in Afghanistan, walks in Kabul, January 15, 2014 (Courtesy Reuters/Mohammad Ismail).

As discussions about post-2014 U.S. presence in Afghanistan continue, so do concerns about the country’s ability to stand on its own. The Afghan people and their government will determine the direction of the country. And as that future is discussed, so is the question of what will happen to 50 percent of country’s population: women.

When the Taliban came to power in 1996, they forbade women from attending school, working in offices, and leaving their homes without a male chaperone. Much has changed in the past decade as many women have worked to make the most of openings created by the international community’s presence.

Twelve years ago, there were fewer than 900,000 boys and almost no girls in school. Now there are more than 8.3 million students in school across Afghanistan, and 40 percent of them are girls. As noted in the recent report on Women’s Economic Empowerment in Afghanistan, published by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, there are currently sixty-nine women in Afghanistan’s Parliament, and the country aims to have female representation in parliament reach 30 percent by 2020. There are also twelve women in executive government departments, as well as five deputy ministers, one governor, one mayor, and numerous other women serving across the government. Women have even increased their presence in the police force, with an estimated 1,551 women donning police uniforms as of July 2013, according to Oxfam. The country recently saw the first woman appointed as district police chief.

Maternal health has also improved. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births, a drop from the 1,600 per 100,000 estimated in 2008. This progress is thanks to an increase in average age of marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, and greater access to maternal care, as noted in the 2011 CFR working paper on Maternal Health in Afghanistan.

Despite daunting challenges, women have achieved economic gains as well. A recent report funded by the U.S. embassy in Afghanistan found that more women than ever work in formal businesses in Afghanistan as employees, owners, and entrepreneurs. The report, which surveyed more than 1,400 Afghan businesswomen across thirty-four provinces, also found that “views on women at work appear to be steadily evolving, with more segments of the population becoming amenable to and supportive of women’s economic participation.” Nearly all women surveyed said they had their family’s backing. Family support, paired with changing attitudes—such as considering education and employment valuable attributes in a wife—are helping create more opportunities for women in the workplace.

Seventy-eight percent of the women surveyed work in small businesses, and 81 percent cited access to financial services as a barrier hampering their economic potential, paralleling trends worldwide when it comes to women’s economic participation. Most respondents also said that they could use more business education, financial management skills, technical support, mentor-mentee opportunities, and support from the Afghan government in accessing these services.

Afghan women face the barriers to economic empowerment women struggle with worldwide, in addition to government corruption, deep-rooted cultural norms, and weak institutions and infrastructure that further limit their opportunities. The most fundamental threat to women remains safety and security, especially as the Law on Elimination of Violence again Women in Afghanistan has been implemented inconsistently. Taken as a whole, these challenges make Afghanistan one of the most challenging environments for businesswomen to survive, much less thrive, in.

But Afghan women have proven their resilience time and time again. If education rates for girls and women and community perceptions of the value of women continue to improve, women’s presence in the economy will grow. These changes will allow Afghan women to contribute even more to their families and communities, and pave the way for greater prosperity for all.

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food insecurity

i think a lot about food.  i think about what i want to eat, when to eat, who to eat with..  but i don’t think about whether or not i’ll actually get to eat that day.  except for this one time…


the summer between my junior and senior years of college, i spent a month in london.  i lived in hostels, found a temp job, and got to meet all sorts of cool people.

i also experienced food insecurity for the first time in my life.

see, i hadn’t planned well.  i found a job early on but didn’t realize i wouldn’t get my first paycheck until weeks later.  i remember one night i was in the grocery store with the cash i had left…  my plan was to buy a loaf of bread and a jar of nutella to last me for the week.  sadly, i was a couple pence short.  i scoured the floors for any dropped coins but couldn’t find anything!  so with much reluctance (and probably a few tears), i put back the jar of nutella and just bought the loaf of bread.


it’s crazy to me that in a world with such a ridiculous amount of wealth and resources, people are going to bed hungry.  nearly 49 million americans live with food insecurity (i.e. they lack consistent access to adequate food []), and 1 in 8 people worldwide suffer from chronic undernourishment [].

i don’t know about you, but i have a really hard time concentrating when i’m hungry.  i get lethargic, my mind wanders, and all i can think about is when i’ll be able to eat.  that summer in london, my work definitely suffered – all i remember about that job was the free tea that warmed and filled my stomach!

all of this helps me to see that those living in hunger are living in a poverty trap (i.e. any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist -wikipedia).  if someone can’t afford food, how can he concentrate enough at school or at work to be able to lift himself up out of his situation?  sure, it’s doable but i’d imagine it’s exponentially harder than for those who’ve had enough to eat.

i don’t have the answers, but i do have a few basic thoughts.

  • understanding.  understanding the poor is the first step to designing effective solutions (see my post on the god-complex: and my book review of poor economics:  empowering the poor is a natural and essential next step.
  • food banks.  i think food banks are part of the solution, but more needs to be done; handouts can be helpful (and are often necessary) for the short-term but won’t help (and may in fact hurt) in the long-term (see my post on relief vs rehab vs development:
  • the non-poor.  while we need to be aware of the god-complex issue, the non-poor do indeed have much to offer: skills-training and business expertise for the poor (i.e. development vs relief), donations and professional expertise for nonprofits and social enterprises, etc.  (how can we better mobilize the non-poor to help??)

there are also some interesting insights in the articles below.  anyone else have any ideas?

P.S. lest you feel sorry for me, by the end of that week in london (and after a few accidental bites of moldy bread), i had caved.  i pulled out the credit card my parents had given me, and my brief experience with food insecurity was over.


related articles:

excerpts from “Road deaths, cancer and diabetes becoming Africa’s hidden epidemics” by Oliver Balch

“accidents on the road are expected to become the biggest killer of children between five and 15 by 2015, outstripping malaria and Aids.”

‘The poorest communities often live alongside the fastest roads, their children may need to negotiate the most dangerous routes to school and they may have poorer outcomes from injuries, due to limited access to post-crash emergency healthcare,’ the report says.

Aside from the obvious distress caused by accidents, sub-Saharan Africa’s high-risk roads have a significant economic impact too. Crashes are estimated to cost African countries between 1 and 3% of their GNP each year, the report finds.”


“The shift towards urbanisation is a case in point. City residents typically take less exercise, triggering diabetes and cardiovascular problems. Rising incomes are driving demand for processed foods that are higher in sugar, fat and salt. The same factors result in increased car use and ownership, and more traffic accidents.

Alcohol consumption links the two. Though seven in 10 adults abstain from drinking alcohol in sub-Saharan Africa, those who do have the highest prevalence of heavy episodic drinking globally, the report says.”

excerpts from “Listening Well: West Africans Speak on Poverty and the Global Church”

What are the causes of poverty?

“There are many causes – ignorance, idol worship, slavery and neo-colonialist structures, political systems – it all creates poverty. But it is also partially created by the approaches of many of the first missionaries and poverty alleviation workers: they created dependency, which cements poverty.”

– Togolese Leaders


What can the foreign church do to better partner with you?

“They should try to appreciate the African culture – identify the positive aspects of African culture, and respect African churches and people as being created in the image of God.”

– Togolese Leaders


“They could support us through training in education, health, and theology in the context of specified partnerships that respect each other.”

– Malian and Togolese Leaders


“They should ask our opinions before coming to help. Don’t just plan in your offices and then come here and do it to us . . . they sometimes think the money is more valuable than human beings. The African church can think and reflect on what we need. Foreign countries try to think for us!”

– Malian and Togolese Leaders 

i hate seeing panhandlers (and the complexity of poverty)

Confession: I hate seeing panhandlers.  All these conflicting thoughts immediately start flooding through my mind when I see them: “I want to help… I don’t want them to waste my money… I shouldn’t be judging them… They look healthy enough to get a job…  I’d rather use my money to help the poor on a larger scale…”  (that last thought doesn’t sound quite like that when I’m sitting there in my car, but you get the idea :P)  It’s even worse when they try to do something in exchange for money – e.g. squeegeeing my windshield (it was cleaner BEFORE you touched it!!), ushering me into a spot on the street (I found it before you came running up, stop trying to take credit!!)…
Then I end up getting frustrated at myself, at them… and when I finally get away I feel relieved, guilty for feeling relieved, and guilty for not helping out.
Argh, I hate seeing panhandlers.  But not because of them… because of me.
I hate my inaction.  I hate my judgmentalism.  I hate that I can’t singlehandedly wipe out poverty (I know, I know..  didn’t you read the post about my god-complex? :P)
Maybe in part to assuage my guilt, I’ve been thinking a lot about what I can do to actually “help the poor on a larger scale” (did I just quote myself in my own blog?  Yes, yes I did).  The annoying thing is that it’s really complicated.  (Disclaimer: I’m simplifying things big-time in the next couple of statements.)
  • Food banks, welfare, and Medicaid help with hunger, unemployment, and medical expenses… but they can also cause dependency. [1]
  • Holiday gift drives and school supply drives provide what could not have been purchased otherwise… but they can also disempower those they’re trying to help. [2]
Just a couple examples, but you get the point.  Obviously, each of these initiatives has pros and an appropriate time and place.  But it’s important to look at both sides – especially if what we’re doing could be causing more harm than good! [3]
One of the most important distinctions to make is whether those we are trying to help need relief, rehabilitation, or development.  Relief is immediate care in response to an urgent emergency or crisis.  Rehabilitation “begins as soon as the bleeding stops” and helps to restore people to their pre-crisis conditions.  Development is in it for the long haul, helping communities pursue ongoing change and improvement.  Doing the wrong thing in a given situation might help in the short-term but ultimately hurt in the long-term.  
Here are a few things to consider when determining what’s most appropriate (from When Helping Hurts, chapter 4):
1) Is it really a crisis?  If you fail to provide immediate help, will there really be serious, negative consequences?  If not, relief is not appropriate.
2) To what degree was the individual personally responsible for the situation?  If there was some personal responsibility involved, ensure the appropriate lessons are being learned.
3) Can the person help himself?  If so, a pure handout undermines the person’s capacity to be a steward of his own resources and abilities.
4) Has this person already been receiving relief from you or others?  If she’s been receiving “emergency” relief from multiple sources, the most loving thing to do might be to withhold further relief, explain why, and offer to walk alongside her in finding a long-term solution.
(I specifically refer to churches in the next section, but it could apply to any group that wants to help.)
The really cool thing about churches is that they can address problems on all ends of this spectrum.  First, we know that churches are called to help (check out my last post).  Second, you’re in a space where you’ll probably be for some time, so you have the unique potential to walk with a person from relief to rehab and all the way through development.  Third, you’re probably surrounded by nonprofits who know how to help – and they need volunteers!  A nonprofit often has the tools to do just relief or just rehab, but a church can “adopt” a community or specific set of individuals and then work with multiple organizations to ensure that help is provided in the right way at the right time.
I’m gonna end with the same quote from my last post:
“There are some 340,000 Christian churches in the United States and about 155 million regular churchgoers.  Let those numbers sink in for just a minute.  Think of the possibilities…  Ponder the potential to change the world if all these churchgoers ‘activated’ and ramped up their commitment to love their neighbors to a new, even higher level.” (The Hole in Our Gospel, chapter 22)
Wouldn’t it be awesome if we could all work together to “help the poor on a larger scale”? 🙂
P.S.  Oh, so what about panhandlers?  These guys say it better than I ever could:
[2] “[After] several years, Pastor Johnson noticed that he was struggling to find enough volunteers to deliver the gifts to the hosing project.  At the congregational meeting, he asked the members why their enthusiasm was waning, but it was difficult to get a clear answer.  Finally, one member spoke up: ‘Pastor, we are tired of trying to help these people out.  We have been bringing them things for several years now, but their situation never improves.  They just sit there in the same situation year in and year out.  Have you ever noticed that there are no men in the apartments when we deliver the toys?  The residents are all unwed mothers who just keep having babies in order to collect bigger and bigger welfare checks.  They don’t deserve our help.’   In reality, there was a different reason that there were few men in the apartments when the toys were delivered.  Oftentimes, when the fathers of the children heard the Christmas carols outside their front doors and saw the presents for their kids through the peepholes, they were embarrassed and ran out the back doors of their apartments.  For a host of reasons, low-income African-American males sometimes struggle to find and keep jobs.  This often contributes to a deep sense of shame and inadequacy, both of which make it even more difficult to apply for jobs.  The last thing these fathers needed was a group of middle-to-upper-class Caucasians providing Christmas presents for their children, presents that they themselves could not afford to buy.  In trying to alleviate material poverty through the giving of these presents, [the church] increased these fathers’ poverty of being.  Ironically, this likely made the fathers even less able to apply for a job, thereby exacerbating the very material poverty that [the church] was trying to solve!  In addition to hurting the residents of the housing project, the [church members] hurt themselves.  At first the members developed a subtle sense of pride that they were helping the project residents through their acts of kindness.  Later, when they observed the residents’ failure to improve their situations, the members’ disdain for them increased.  What is often called ‘compassion fatigue’ then set in as the members became less willing to help the low-income residents…  Furthermore, the poverty of community increased for everyone involved, as the gulf between the church members and the housing project residents actually increased as a result of this project. (When Helping Hurts, chapter 2)